Somewhere in space may be a distant world that the clear, dark night sky is devoid of incredible flames of a crowd of thousands of stars – like the stars in the sky above our own earth. such a pity, black night sky may belong to a pyderweb crossbow target planet that orbits a star ghost; a star ejected from an ancient galaxy gravitationally torn to shreds billions of years ago. in october 2014, astronomers announced that nasa hubble space telescope (hst) was spotted faint, ghostly light coming from the star ejected and wandering orphans of galaxies ripped apart long ago and far away.
Mayhem happened about 4 billion light years away, in a massive collection of about 500 galaxies playfully nicknamed pandora’s cluster – also known by the more dignified name of abell 2744 –and tragedy, orphan stars do not pyderweb crossbow target depend in any one galaxy, but instead drift freely, lost and alone, between forming galaxy cluster that far! by watching the ghostly, glowing light from orphaned stars, hst astronomers have put together forensic evidence indicating that as many as six galaxies ripped apart gravity within pandora cluster within a span 6 billion years. supercomputer modeling of gravitational dance between galaxies, dwelling in clusters, suggests that the galactic scope as large as our own starry, barred spiral milky way galaxy is probably the source of the ghostly stellar orphans.
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The tragic galaxy would have been ripped to shreds if they hurled themselves through the heart of the galaxy cluster in which gravitational tidal forces are the most powerful. astronomers have long suggested that the light flowing pyderweb crossbow target from scattered stars should be detectable after their doomed host galaxy is fragmented. unfortunately, the predicted “intracluster” ghostly light of orphaned stars are too dim and difficult to detect. pandora’s cluste r has a violent history. it is a giant cluster formed as a result of simultaneous pile-up of at least a quartet of smaller, separate galaxy clusters have occurred within a span of 350 million years.
The scope of galactic clusters account for less than five percent of its mass. the gas floating around in the cluster so searing-hot that it glows in x-rays, and it accounts for about 20 percent of the mass of the cluster. the lion’s share of the mass of pandora cluster –75 percent of them – is made up of mysterious dark matter. dark matter is weird stuff that account for most of the matter content of the universe. although its identity has not been determined, dark matter is generally thought to consist of exotic non-atomic particles that do not interact with light or any other form of electromagnetic radiation – and, as a result, transparent and invisible.
However, astronomers generally agree that it is really there because they exert remarkable influence on both “ordinary” atomic matter and light through the force of gravity. so-called “ordinary” atomic matter are less abundant than the exotic dark matter. although relatively sparse, atomic matter accounts for literally all of the elements listed in the periodic table, and it also represents what we on earth perceive as familiar with – for example, it is the stuff of stars , planets, moons, and people. so-called “ordinary” atomic matter – which is actually very unusual things – constitutes a puny 4 percent or more of the mass-energy of the cosmos.
Pandora cluster also displays a radio mix with a handful of other clusters abell. it shows a strong central mix, plus a extended tail. the tail may be pyderweb crossbow target either an extension of the central halo, or relic radiation. it received its nickname because so many strange and different phenomena are released as a result of the pile-up collision. cluster of galaxies a host of fiery, brilliant stars dazzle more than 100 billion galaxies dance around in our visible or observable, the universe. the visible universe is relatively small regions of the universe that is remarkable.
Most unimaginably gigantic cosmos is situated far, far beyond what is remarkable from where we were standing. this is because light travels to us from distant regions do not have enough time to reach us since the inflationary big bang birth of the universe about 13.8 billion years ago. most galaxies reside in groups or clusters –with groups being quite a bit smaller than in clusters. clusters and superclusters of galaxies are the largest structures that are known to exist in the universe, and they usually consist of hundreds to thousands of separate galaxies that are all tied together by the force of gravity – thus forming the densest part of the large-scale structure of the universe.
Our own milky way is an inhabitant of local group that hosts over 40 galaxies, where our galaxy and other arms, the andromeda galaxy, is the largest member. our local group, in turn, is situated close to the outer limits of the virgo cluster of galaxies, the core is 50 million light years from us. starlit sky of our cosmos trace out for us mysterious, massive, massive and very web-like filaments made of exotic dark matter. the fiery space to dance around together in groups and clusters light it transparent, weird cosmic web, shedding wonderful light in strange structure which would otherwise be invisible.
In the very early universe, opaque clouds of gas met along the very large and dark matter filaments big cosmic web. the densest regions of the heavy dark matter web snatched clean wandering cloud of primordial gases with irresistible force of gravitational attraction. because dark matter does interact with atomic matter gravity, and it warps, distorts and bends light (gravitational lensing), it shows his strange ghost-like presence in the eyes of the curious observer. gravitational lensing is a phenomenon that suggested by albert einstein when he realized that his calculations showed that gravity can warp light and therefore produce effects like lens.
In your mind’s eye envision how it is seen, mysterious, ghost-like form of exotic matter snatched the clouds of pristine gas – that was mostly hydrogen – with its relentless gravitational embrace. the pool of gas has become the nursery for the first generation of fiery baby stars to ignite the ancient cosmos their amazing shrieks of newborn light. the fierce gravity of web cosmic pulled his victim up to the net cloud of gas created blobs in a transparent almost exotic dark matter. the floating, tumbling clouds of ancient, primordial gases down, down, down into the mysterious heart of almost transparent, strung out in mysterious cosmic web like black pearls on a strange necklace.
Astronomers believe that the first galaxies to dance in our universe was opaque and dark clouds of gas, brings together the hearts of dark matter halos, and they hoisted the first batch of incandescent neonatal stars with strong attraction of their gravity. the sparkling stars and babies searing-hot gas glaring lit up what was previously a swath of incredible darkness – a pity that space, now set to shine with new and dazzling fire. “the hubble data revealing the ghost light is important step forward in understanding the evolution of galaxy clusters. it is also amazingly good that we found the telltale glow by using hubble’s unique abilities,” stated dr.
, ignacio trujillo in an october 30, 2014 press release hubblesite. dr. trujillo is the instituto de astrofísica de canarias (iac) in pyderweb crossbow target la laguna, tenerife, spain, and one of the astronomers involved in this study of abell 2744. “the results are in good agreement with what is predicted to happen in massive clusters of galaxies, “added dr. mirela montes both hubblesite press release. dr. montes is also iac, and lead author of the paper describing the research published on october 1, 2014 issue of the astrophysical journal. the team of astronomers used the hst’s steady gaze to put together the visible light and near-infrared color image of pandora cluster.
They split the image color according to the light, to study not only the color of the brilliant and bright galaxies but also considerably dimmer intracluster light. the authors of the study believe that the intracluster light is not a particularly well-defined volume, from an observational perspective. while theorists are able to track each stellar luminous objects as they model the evolution of galaxy clusters by the passage of time, observational astronomers must specify intracluster light as any light below some threshold in surface brightness. astronomers estimate that the combined light coming from approximately 200 billion stars orphaned ghost contributes about 10 percent of pandora’s cluster light.
Because the extremely faint stars are brightest near-infrared wavelengths, the team noted that this particular type of observation can only be accomplished by using hst’s infrared sensitivity exceptionally dim light. hst measurements defined the phantom ghost star harbor an abundance of heavier atomic elements such as oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon. essentially, this means that the careless and widely dispersed stellar sparklers become either the second- or third-generation stars that are enriched in heavier elements forged in boiling-hot heart of the universe first-generation stars. spiral galaxies – like the thought that ripped apart – can still produce chemically enriched stellar baby.
Harboring the truly impressive mass of 4 trillion suns, pandora cluster is a target in frontier fields program. this very ambitious team three-year project hst and other nasa great observatories to stare in select large clusters of galaxies to help astronomers study the very distant universe. clusters of galaxies are so massive that their extremely strong gravity deflects the light passing through them, magnifying, brightening, and distorting light as a result of gravitational lensing. astronomers use the handy gifts provided by mother nature – it’s very useful property of space – as a kind of cosmic zoom lens to magnify the image of the ancient times and distant galaxies that would otherwise be much too faint to be observed.
Dr. montes’ team used the hst data to study the environment of the foreground cluster itself. there are five other cluster frontier fields program, and the team is planning to search for the eerie, ghost ghost haunting the light clusters, too. judith e. braffman-miller is a writer and astronomer whose articles were published in 1981 in various magazines, newspapers and journals. although he has written on a variety of topics, he especially loves writing about astronomy because it gives him the opportunity to talk with others in the many wonders of his field.
His first book, “wisps, ashes and smoke,” published soon.